Back Pain

What is Back Pain?

Back pain is a common problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It can be defined as discomfort, pain, or soreness in the area of the lower, middle, or upper back. Back pain can range from a mild ache to a sharp and debilitating pain, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as stiffness, tingling, or muscle spasms.

Causes of back pain

The human back is a complex framework of muscles, ligaments, tendons, discs, and bones that support the body and allow us to move. The components of the spine are padded by discs, which resemble cartilage.
Back pain can result from issues with any of the following factors. In certain cases of back discomfort, the underlying cause is unknown. Among other things, strain, medical issues, and improper posture can cause harm.

Causes of back pain

The human back is a complex framework of muscles, ligaments, tendons, discs, and bones that support the body and allow us to move. The components of the spine are padded by discs, which resemble cartilage.
Back pain can result from issues with any of the following factors. In certain cases of back discomfort, the underlying cause is unknown. Among other things, strain, medical issues, and improper posture can cause harm.


The majority of the time, strain, tension, or injury are the causes of back pain. The following are some common causes and trusted sources of back pain:

  • muscles or ligaments that are strained
  • a muscular spasm
  • muscle tension
  • damaged discs
  • Accidents, injuries, and fractures

The following are examples of activities that could potentially cause muscle strains or spasms:

  • lifting anything in an unsafe manner
  • attempting to move anything that is extremely heavy
  • making an abrupt and awkward movement


Ruptured discs: Evey vertebra in the spine is padded by discs. In the event that the disc ruptures, further pressure will be placed on the nerve, which would cause back discomfort.

bulging discs: In much the same way as ruptured discs can provide additional strain on a nerve, bulging discs can also cause additional pressure on a nerve.

Sciatica: Sciatica is characterised by a pain that is intense and radiates through the buttock and along the back of the leg. This pain is brought on by a herniated or bulging disc that is pressing on a nerve.

Arthritis: Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that can affect multiple joints, including those in the hips, lower back, and other locations. Sometimes there is a reduction in the amount of space that surrounds the spinal cord. This condition is referred to as spinal stenosis.

Abnormal curvature of the spine: Back discomfort can be a symptom of an abnormal curvature of the spine, which occurs when the backbone curves in a manner that is not normal. Scoliosis is a condition that causes the spine to curve to the side, and it serves as an example.

Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones, notably the vertebrae in the spine, become brittle and porous, which increases the risk of compression fractures.

Kidney problems: Back discomfort can be caused by kidney disorders such as kidney stones or an infection in the kidney.

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  • twisting
  • having a cough or a sneeze
  • muscle tension
  • over-stretching
  • bending in an unnatural manner or for extended periods of time
  • moving something by pushing, pulling, lifting, or carrying it
  • either standing or sitting for extended periods of time
  • putting excessive tension on the front of the neck, such as when driving or working at a computer
  • prolonged periods of time spent sitting in a car without taking breaks, even when not leaned over
  • sleeping on a mattress that doesn’t provide adequate support for the body and does not maintain a straight posture for the spine

Other Causes

Back pain can be caused by some medical conditions.

Cauda equina syndrome: is a collection of nerves that exit the spinal column at the base of the spine, and compression of this bundle can cause symptoms known as cauda equina syndrome. The buttocks, genitalia, and thighs may go numb, and there may be dull pain in the lower back and upper buttocks. Disturbances in bowel and urinary function may occur.

Spinal cancer: if a tumour presses on a nerve in the spine, the patient may have back pain.

Infection of the spine: Pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary tract infections, and kidney infections are all possible causes of back discomfort.

Sleep disorders: People who have trouble sleeping are more prone to suffer from back discomfort.

Shingles: Pain in the back may be caused by shingles, an illness that can irritate nerves. Which nerves are affected is a crucial factor in this.


The most prominent sign of back pain is discomfort in the back, which may radiate to the buttocks and legs.
Depending on which nerves are irritated, back problems can radiate pain to other areas of the body.
Although the discomfort usually disappears on its own, those experiencing any of the following conditions should contact a doctor:


Back pain could be avoided by getting in better shape and learning and practising how to use the body.

To keep the back strong and healthy,

  • Exercise. Regular low-impact aerobic activities, which don’t strain or jolt the back, can build back strength and endurance and help the muscles work better. You can walk, ride a bike, or go swimming. Talk to your doctor or nurse about which activities you should try.
  • Build the strength and flexibility of your muscles. Abdominal and back muscle exercises strengthen the core and condition these muscles so that they can support the back by working together.
  • Keep your weight in a good range. Back muscles get tired when a person is overweight.
  • Quit smoking. Low back pain is more likely to happen if you smoke. The risk goes up with how many cigarettes a person smokes each day, so quitting should help lower this risk.

Don’t do things that twist or hurt your back. To make good use of the body:

Stand smart. Don’t slouch. Maintain a neutral pelvic position. Put one foot on a low footstool when you have to stand for a long time to take some of the weight off your lower back. Alternate feet. Back muscles can be less stressed if you have good posture.

Sit smart. Choose a seat with a good backrest, armrests, and a base that can turn. By putting a pillow or towel roll in the small of the back, the natural curve can be kept. Don’t tilt your knees or hips. Move around often, at least once every half hour.

Lift smart. If you can, try not to lift heavy things. Let your legs do the work if you need to lift something heavy. Don’t twist your back. Instead, keep it straight and only bend at the knees. Keep the weight close to you. If the item is heavy or awkward, find someone to help you lift it.


If the treatments you try at home don’t work, doctor may suggest drugs or other treatments.


Medicines for back pain depend on the kind of pain. Some of them could be:

Pain relievers

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, and others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve) might help. Only take these medicines as told.
Overuse can cause serious side effects. If over-the-counter pain relievers don't help, your doctor might suggest NSAIDs, which you can only get with a prescription.

Muscle relaxants

If pain relievers don't help with mild to moderate back pain, a muscle relaxant might. Muscle relaxants can make you feel dizzy and tired. Pain relievers that you put on your skin. These pain-relieving products, such as creams, salves, ointments, and patches, are put on the skin.


Opioid drugs like oxycodone and hydrocodone can be used for a short time under close medical supervision.


Some types of antidepressants, like duloxetine (Cymbalta) and tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline, have been shown to relieve chronic back pain.

Physical Therapy

A physical therapist can show you exercises to help you become more flexible, strengthen your back and stomach muscles, and straighten your back. If you use these techniques often, they can help keep pain from coming back. Physical therapists will also teach you how to change your movements when you have back pain so that you don’t make the pain worse and can still stay active.

Surgical and other procedures

Some of the things that can be done to treat back pain are:

injections of cortisone

If other treatments don't help with pain that goes down the leg, cortisone and a numbing medicine injected into the space around the spinal cord and nerve roots might. A cortisone injection helps reduce inflammation around the nerve roots, but the pain relief usually only lasts a month or two.

Ablation with radio waves

In this method, a thin needle is put through the skin near the painful spot. Radio waves are sent through the needle in order to hurt the nerves nearby. Damage to the nerves makes it hard for the brain to get pain signals

Nerve stimulators were put in

Under-the-skin devices can send electrical impulses to certain nerves to stop pain signals from being sent to the brain.


Surgery to make more room in the spine can sometimes help people whose muscles are getting weaker or whose back pain goes down one leg. These problems can be caused by herniated discs or other problems that make the spaces in the spine smaller.

Why dr prathap

Dr. Prathap has extensive training and experience in diagnosing and treating conditions related to the spine and back. His expertise typically includes the following areas:

Understanding of anatomy and physiology of the spine: Dr. Prathap has in-depth knowledge of the anatomy and function of the spine, as well as its surrounding muscles, bones, and nerves, which is essential in diagnosing and treating back pain.

Expertise in diagnostic techniques: BDr. Prathap is skilled in performing a comprehensive evaluation of the patient’s symptoms, including physical exams, medical history reviews, and imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI, and CT scans.

Knowledge of different types of back pain: Dr. Prathap is knowledgeable about various types of back pain, including acute and chronic back pain, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and sciatica, and can recommend the best treatment options for each condition.

Experience with non-surgical treatments: Dr. Prathap is skilled in non-surgical treatments for back pain, including physical therapy, pain medication, and epidural injections.

Knowledge of surgical options: If a patient requires surgery, Dr. Prathap has the knowledge and expertise to recommend the best surgical option and guide the patient through the surgical process.

Empathy and good communication skills: In addition to his medical expertise, Dr. Prathap has excellent communication skills and empathetic to the patient’s needs and concerns, which helps to build trust and ensure that the patient feels comfortable throughout the treatment process.


Back pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, injury, arthritis, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, and scoliosis. In some cases, the cause of back pain is unknown.

A back pain specialist will diagnose back pain through a comprehensive evaluation, which may include a physical examination, medical history review, and imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI, and CT scans.

Treatment for back pain can range from non-surgical options such as physical therapy, pain medication, and epidural injections to surgical options such as spinal fusion and laminectomy. The best treatment option will depend on the cause and severity of the pain.

Back pain is usually treatable, but the success of treatment depends on several factors, including the cause of the pain, the severity of the pain, and the patient’s overall health. In some cases, chronic back pain may not be completely cured, but can be managed with a combination of treatments.

Yes, exercise can be beneficial for managing back pain. Gentle stretching and low-impact activities such as walking, swimming, and yoga can help to reduce back pain and improve flexibility and strength. However, it is important to consult with a back pain specialist before starting any new exercise program.

Epidural injections can be effective in reducing back pain caused by conditions such as herniated discs and spinal stenosis. The injections deliver anti-inflammatory medications to the affected area, which can provide temporary pain relief.

Surgery is not always necessary for back pain. In many cases, non-surgical treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and epidural injections can effectively manage the pain. However, in some cases, surgery may be recommended as the best treatment option.

There are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing back pain, including maintaining good posture, staying active and physically fit, and avoiding repetitive motions that can strain the back. Wearing proper footwear and using proper lifting techniques can also help prevent back pain.

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